Anti-inflammatory effects of a bioavailable compound, Artepillin C, in Brazilian propolis.
Paulino N, Abreu SR, Uto Y, Koyama D, Nagasawa H, Hori H, Dirsch VM, Vollmar AM, Scremin A, Bretz WA.
Programa de Pós-graduação em Farmácia, Universidade Bandeirante de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. email@example.com
Artepillin C is the major compound in the Brazilian green propolis from Baccharis dracunculifolia. Our aim in this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects, absorption, and bioavailability of Artepillin C in mice. The animals used were male Swiss mice subjected to: paw oedema by carrageenan (300 microg/paw), carrageenan-induced peritonitis, and prostaglandin E(2) determination. We also measured in vitro nitric oxide production by RAW 264.7 cells and NF-kappaB activity in HEK 293 cells. Finally, we measured the absorption and bioavailability of Artepillin C in plasma from mice by means of GC-MS after a single oral dose (10 mg/kg). In vivo, Artepillin C produced a maximal inhibition of 38% after 360 min on paw oedema. Artepillin C also decreased the number of neutrophils during peritonitis (IC(50): 0.9 (0.5-1.4) mg/kg). Treatment with Artepillin C decreased prostaglandin E(2) by 29+/-3% and 58+/-5% at 1 and 10 mg/kg, respectively, with a mean ID(50) of 8.5 (8.0-8.7) mg/kg). Similarly, in in vitro models, Artepillin C (3, 10, or 100 microM) decreased nitric oxide production by RAW 264.7 cells with a mean IC(50) of 8.5 (7.8-9.2) microM. In HEK 293 cells, Artepillin C reduced NF-kappaB activity with a mean IC(50) of 26 (22-30) mug/ml), suggesting anti-inflammatory activity, particularly during acute inflammation. Lastly, Artepillin C was absorbed after an oral dose (10 mg/kg) with maximal peaks found at 1 h (22 microg/ml). Collectively, Artepillin C showed anti-inflammatory effects mediated, at least in part, by prostaglandin E(2) and nitric oxide inhibition through NF-kappaB modulation, and exhibited bioavailability by oral administration.
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