Felix Zulhendri, Conrad O.Perera, Steven Tandean, Rizky Abdulah, Herry Herman, Andreas Christoper, Kavita Chandrasekaran, Arfiza Putra, Ronny Lesmana
Propolis is a resinous beehive product that is collected by the bees from plant resin and exudates, to protect and maintain hive homeostasis. Propolis has been used by humans therapeutically to treat many ailments including respiratory tract-related diseases and disorders. The aim of the present systematic scoping review is to evaluate the experimental evidence to support the use of propolis as a primary or an adjunctive therapy in respiratory tract-related diseases and disorders. After applying the exclusion criteria, 158 research publications were retrieved and identified from Scopus, Web of Science, Pubmed, and Google Scholar. The key themes of the included studies were pathogenic infection-related diseases and disorders, inflammation-related disorders, lung cancers, and adverse effects. Furthermore, the potential molecular and biochemical mechanisms of action of propolis in alleviating respiratory tract-related diseases and disorders are discussed. In conclusion, the therapeutic benefits of propolis have been demonstrated by various in vitro studies, in silico studies, animal models, and human clinical trials. Based on the weight and robustness of the available experimental and clinical evidence, propolis is effective, either as a primary or an adjunctive therapy, in treating respiratory tract-related diseases.
* THESE STATEMENTS HAVE NOT BEEN EVALUATED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION. THIS IS NOT INTENDED TO DIAGNOSE, TREAT CURE OR PREVENT ANY DISEASE.