The Effects of Propolis and its Isolated Compounds on Cytokine Production by Murine Macrophages
T. F. Bachiega, C. L. Orsatti, A. C. Pagliarone and J. M. Sforcin*
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Biosciences Institute, UNESP, Botucatu, SP, 18618-970, Brazil
Since propolis and phenolic compounds, such as cinnamic and coumaric acids, have several biological properties, their immunomodulatory effect on cytokine production (IL-1b, IL-6 and IL-10) was investigated. Peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice were incubated with propolis, coumaric and cinnamic acids in different concentrations and the concentrations that inhibited cytokine production were tested before or after macrophage challenge with LPS, to evaluate a possible immunomodulatory action. Propolis and the acids stimulated IL-1b production, while IL-6 production was signi␣cantly inhibited after incubation with propolis (5, 50 and 100mg/well), coumaric and cinnamic acids (50 and 100mg/well). In LPS-challenge protocols, inhibitory concentrations of cinnamic and coumaric acids after LPS incubation prevented ef␣ciently its effects on IL-6 production, whereas propolis inhibited LPS effects both before and after its addition. Propolis, coumaric and cinnamic acids (50 and 100 mg/well) inhibited IL-10 production as well. Both acids showed a similar inhibitory activity on IL-10 production when added after LPS challenge, while propolis counteracted LPS action when added before and after LPS incubation. Propolis modulated the immune/in␣ammatory response, depending on the concentration. Its ef␣ciency may occur due to the synergistic effect of its compounds, and cinnamic and coumaric acids may be involved in the action of propolis on cytokine production. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
* THESE STATEMENTS HAVE NOT BEEN EVALUATED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION. THIS IS NOT INTENDED TO DIAGNOSE, TREAT CURE OR PREVENT ANY DISEASE.