Sci Rep. 2017 Apr 19;7(1):923. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-01038-2.
The Chemical Characterization of Nigerian Propolis samples and Their Activity Against Trypanosoma brucei.
Omar R1, Igoli JO1,2, Zhang T3, Gray AI1, Ebiloma GU4, Clements CJ1, Fearnley J5, Edrada Ebel R1, Paget T6, de Koning HP4, Watson DG7.
Profiling of extracts from twelve propolis samples collected from eight regions in Nigeria was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with evaporative light scattering (ELSD), ultraviolet detection (UV) and mass spectrometry (MS), gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the processed LC-MS data demonstrated the varying chemical composition of the samples. Most of the samples were active against Trypanosoma b. brucei with the highest activity being in the samples from Southern Nigeria. The more active samples were fractionated in order to isolate the component(s) responsible for their activity using medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC). Three xanthones, 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2,8-di-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone, 1,3,7-trihydroxy-4,8-di-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone a previously undescribed xanthone and three triterpenes: ambonic acid, mangiferonic acid and a mixture of α-amyrin with mangiferonic acid (1:3) were isolated and characterised by NMR and LC-MS. These compounds all displayed strong inhibitory activity against T.b. brucei but none of them had higher activity than the crude extracts. Partial least squares (PLS) modelling of the anti-trypanosomal activity of the sample extracts using the LC-MS data indicated that high activity in the extracts, as judged from LCMS2 data, could be correlated to denticulatain isomers in the extracts.
PMID: 28424496 PMCID: PMC5430459 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-01038-2
* THESE STATEMENTS HAVE NOT BEEN EVALUATED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION. THIS IS NOT INTENDED TO DIAGNOSE, TREAT CURE OR PREVENT ANY DISEASE.