Propolis: The future therapy against Helicobacter pylori-mediated gastrointestinal diseases.
Ummay Mahfuza Shapla, Jinat Raihan, Asiful Islam, Fahmida Alam, Naeem Solayman, Siew Hua Gan, Sakib Hossen, Ibrahim Khalil
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which is found in the stomach of approximately 50% of humans, remains there for almost the entire lifetime of the infected individual, leading to various gastrointestinal tract-associated disorders following full-blown infection. Due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance, recurrence and high cost of therapy, most antibiotic-based treatment strategies are not very effective in eradicating H. pylori infections. The quest for an alternative treatment free of these inconveniences is currently in demand. One of the important alternatives is propolis, produced by the honeybee Apis mellifera, which has been used to treat different diseases since it possesses a wide range of biochemical properties. Propolis has been reported as a useful therapeutic regimen against H. pylori, which is an important cause of gastric inflammation, peptic ulcer, gastric cancer, and lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues. Apart from propolis, various active compounds of other natural products have also been confirmed to be effective. This review compiles the scientific evidence of the role of propolis and other natural products against H. pylori-associated gastrointestinal tract-related health complexities by acing as an anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant factor as well as via modulation of enzymatic activities.
* THESE STATEMENTS HAVE NOT BEEN EVALUATED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION. THIS IS NOT INTENDED TO DIAGNOSE, TREAT CURE OR PREVENT ANY DISEASE.