Bioorg Med Chem. 2017 Aug 19. pii: S0968-0896(17)30869-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2017.08.026. [Epub ahead of print]
Propolis reversed cigarette smoke-induced emphysema through macrophage alternative activation independent of Nrf2.
Barroso MV1, Cattani-Cavalieri I2, de Brito-Gitirana L2, Fautrel A3, Lagente V4, Schmidt M5, Porto LC6, Romana-Souza B6, Valença SS7, Lanzetti M2.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an incurable and progressive disease. Emphysema is the principal manifestation of COPD, and the main cause of this condition is cigarette smoke (CS). Natural products have shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can prevent acute lung inflammation and emphysema, but there are few reports in the literature regarding therapeutic approaches to emphysema. We hypothesized that supplementation with natural extracts would repair lung damage in emphysema caused by CS exposure. Mice were exposed to 60days of CS and then treated or not with three different natural extracts (mate tea, grape and propolis) orally for additional 60days. Histological analysis revealed significant improvements in lung histoarchitecture, with recovery of alveolar spaces in all groups treated with natural extracts. Propolis was also able to recovery alveolar septa and elastic fibers. Propolis also increased MMP-2 and decreased MMP-12 expression, favoring the process of tissue repair. Additionally, propolis recruited leukocytes, including macrophages, without ROS release. These findings led us to investigate the profile of these macrophages, and we showed that propolis could promote macrophage alternative activation, thus increasing the number of arginase-positive cells and IL-10 levels and favoring an anti-inflammatory microenvironment. We further investigated the participation of Nrf2 in lung repair, but no Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus was observed in lung cells. Proteins and enzymes related to Nrf2 were not altered, other than NQO1, which seemed to be activated by propolis in a Nrf2-independent manner. Finally, propolis downregulated IGF1 expression. In conclusion, propolis promoted lung repair in a mouse emphysema model via macrophage polarization from M1 to M2 in parallel to the downregulation of IGF1 expression in a Nrf2-independent manner.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID: 28886998 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2017.08.026
* THESE STATEMENTS HAVE NOT BEEN EVALUATED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION. THIS IS NOT INTENDED TO DIAGNOSE, TREAT CURE OR PREVENT ANY DISEASE.