BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2017 May 4;18(1):32. doi: 10.1186/s40360-017-0139-4.
Kustiawan PM1, Lirdprapamongkol K2, Palaga T3, Puthong S4, Phuwapraisirisan P5, Svasti J2, Chanchao C6.
Cardol is a major bioactive constituent in the Trigona incisa propolis from Indonesia, with a strong in vitro antiproliferative activity against the SW620 colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (IC50 of 4.51 ± 0.76 μg/mL). Cardol induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death. The present study was designed to reveal the mechanism of cardol’s antiproliferative effect and induction of apoptosis.
Changes in cell morphology were observed by light microscopy. To determine whether the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway was involved in cell death, caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities, western blot analysis, mitochondrial membrane potential, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were assayed.
Changes in the cell morphology and the significantly increased caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities, plus the cleavage of pro-caspase-3, pro-caspase-9 and PARP, supported that cardol caused apoptosis in SW620 cells within 2 h after treatment by cardol. In addition, cardol decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential while increasing the intracellular ROS levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Antioxidant treatment supported that the cardol-induced cell death was dependent on ROS production.
Cardol induced cell death in SW620 cells was mediated by oxidative stress elevation and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and these could be the potential molecular mechanism for the antiproliferative effect of cardol.
PMID: 28472978 PMCID: PMC5418687 DOI: 10.1186/s40360-017-0139-4
* THESE STATEMENTS HAVE NOT BEEN EVALUATED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION. THIS IS NOT INTENDED TO DIAGNOSE, TREAT CURE OR PREVENT ANY DISEASE.