Chemoprevention of Oral Cancer by Saudi Arabian Propolis: An Overview
Kamal ahmad Qureshi, Riyaz Ahmed Khan, Gamal Al Hasan Osman, Faisal Al-Shalawy
Propolis is a resinous substance collected by worker honeybees from tree buds, sap flows, or other botanical sources. The bees pack propolis on their hind legs, carry it to their colony, and use it as a sterilant & sealant for unwanted open spaces in the hive. It is one of the oldest known therapeutic agents that are used even today in traditional medicines. Saudi Propolis has numerous therapeutic properties like antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, anti-inflammatory etc. Although numerous researchers have been reported the antimicrobial activity of propolis from different countries and geographical regions but information about Saudi Arabian Propolis are still limited. The composition of propolis can vary according to the geographic locations from where the bees obtained the ingredients. Main chemicals constituents of Saudi propolis have been identified as caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and artepillin C, galangin, xanthomicrol, chrysin. CAPE or chrysin are the active ingredients having anti proliferative property. The anti proliferative (anti cancer) effects of CAPE or chrysin in cancer cells are the result of the suppression of complexes of cyclins, as well as cell cycle arrest. The results of in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that CAPE and chrysin may inhibit tumor cell progression and may be useful as potential chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive anti cancer drugs. Oral cancer represents 3rd most common malignancy after lymphoma and leukemia of all cancers in the Saudi Arabia. In addition to high rates of recurrence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma because of frequent formation of second primary tumor in 3% to 7% per year, among the highest for any malignancy. Chemopreventive agents can serve as an appropriate therapy for patients with a premalignant lesion or patients who have had head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Also, excellent candidate of cancer for assessment of chemoprevention is Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral mucosa because lesions are amenable to oral delivery of chemopreventive agents. We assume that either dietary administration or intralesional injection of â€™propolisâ€™ would inhibit the occurrence and progression of malignant oral lesions. The effects can be visually monitored during treatment, and modulation or inhibition of genes or gene products involved in oral SCC constitute molecular targets against which chemopreventive approaches can be tested and validated.
* THESE STATEMENTS HAVE NOT BEEN EVALUATED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION. THIS IS NOT INTENDED TO DIAGNOSE, TREAT CURE OR PREVENT ANY DISEASE.