Deepak M. Kasote, Archana A. Sharbidre, Dayanand C. Kalyani, Vinod S. Nandre, Jisun H. J. Lee, Aijaz Ahmad & Amar A. Telke
Infections associated with multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens are becoming challenging due to the limited availability of antibiotics. Conversely, overuse of antibiotics is further leading to the development of MDR traits among the various pathogenic microorganisms. Considering these challenges, in recent times, extensive research about developing new antibiotics, including exploring the utility of different alternative and complementary medicines against a range of MDR pathogens, has been undertaken worldwide. Phytochemicals, plant extracts, and natural products are receiving a great deal of research attention as resistance-modifying agents against MDR pathogens. Honeybees (Apis mellifera) and stingless bees have natural wisdom about selecting and collecting antimicrobial principles from plants. Using this inherited wisdom, honeybees produce propolis for their protection from microbes, viruses, and insects. Recent scientific studies also substantiated these ancient antimicrobial claims of propolis and proved its utility in treating MDR pathogens. In this book chapter, we have reviewed the antibacterial activity of different propolis samples against MDR pathogens, emphasizing their mode of action, and synergistic interaction with various antibiotics and other natural products against MDR pathogens.
* THESE STATEMENTS HAVE NOT BEEN EVALUATED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION. THIS IS NOT INTENDED TO DIAGNOSE, TREAT CURE OR PREVENT ANY DISEASE.