An Insight into Anticancer Effect of Propolis and Its Constituents: A Review of Molecular Mechanisms
Perumal Elumalai, Natarajan Muninathan, Sadhasivan T Megalatha, Arumugam Suresh, Kalimuthu Senthil Kumar, Nathan Jhansi, Kuppuswamy Kalaivani, Gunasekaran Krishnamoorthy
Propolis is a natural compound collected by honeybees from different parts of plants. Honeybees produce a sticky component besides honey by mixing the tree resin and other botanical sources with saliva called propolis or bee glue. Propolis was traditionally used as a wound healing substance, cosmetic, medicine, and many other conditions. Till now, there is no definite curable treatment for most cancers and chemotherapeutic drugs and drugs used for targeted therapies have serious side effects. According to a recent research, natural products are becoming increasingly essential in cancer prevention. Natural products are a great source of potential therapeutic agents, especially in the treatment of cancer. Previous studies have reported that the presence of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), artepillin C, and chrysin is responsible for the anticancer potential of propolis. Most of the previous studies suggested that propolis and its active compounds inhibit cancer progression by targeting multiple signaling pathways including phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling molecules, and induce cell cycle arrest. Induction of apoptosis by propolis is mediated through extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. The aim of this review is to highlight and summarize the molecular targets and anticancer potential of propolis and its active compounds on cell survival, proliferation, metastasis, and apoptosis in cancer cells.
* THESE STATEMENTS HAVE NOT BEEN EVALUATED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION. THIS IS NOT INTENDED TO DIAGNOSE, TREAT CURE OR PREVENT ANY DISEASE.