A comprehensive insight into the molecular and cellular mechanisms of the effects of Propolis on preserving renal function: a systematic review.
Paniz Anvarifard, Maryam Anbari, Alireza Ostadrahimi, Mohammadreza Ardalan, Zohreh Ghoreishi
Background: The present systematic review is conducted, focusing on the existing evidence of Propolis’s effects due to its various health benefits, mainly antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties on preserving renal function.
Methods: A systematic search of PubMed, Scopus, Embase, ProQuest, and Google Scholar was undertaken for relevant papers published from the start until January 2021.
Results: This review revealed that Propolis affects fasting blood sugar (FBS), postprandial blood glucose, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) concentrations, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, urinary concentrations of reactive oxygen metabolites (Tbars), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formation favorably. The findings on hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), β-cell function (HOMA-β), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and lipid profile were controversial. Moreover, a significant reduction in renal nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), serum immunoglobulins, renal ED-1+ cells, and urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) following Propolis supplementation has been reported, while the results on interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxide synthetase (NOS), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were controversial. Furthermore, included studies showed its anti- proteinuria and kidney restoring effects.
Conclusion: In this review, both human and animal studies provide us evidences that Propolis could potentially improve the glycemic status, oxidative stress, renal tissue damage, and renal function. Further studies are needed to determine the underlying mechanisms.
* THESE STATEMENTS HAVE NOT BEEN EVALUATED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION. THIS IS NOT INTENDED TO DIAGNOSE, TREAT CURE OR PREVENT ANY DISEASE.