Mohammed Mustafa Ibrahim, Yendrembam K Devi
Honey bees are social insects produce honey and other hive products like propolis, royal jelly, bee venom and bee wax. Besides, their significance as the valued pollinators of many vegetable and horticultural crops they also play a crucial role in preservation of natural biodiversity. Many (diseases, parasites, insects) and environmental stress have an impact on the longevity and efficiency of honey bees. Gasses, heavy metals and air pollutants, in addition to inorganic compounds, have been linked to increased queen replacement and winter mortality in honey bees, as well as reduced brood survival and interference with cellular metabolism. Furthermore, natural poisons in food including toxic polysaccharides, phenolics, cyanogenic glycosides and alkaloids can impair colony performance, influence energy production via mitochondrial ATP synthase inhibition and result in acute mortality. In addition, adult bees ingesting acaricides such as formic acid and oxalic acid may die midgut cells, reducing bee activity, nursing behavior and longevity. Furthermore, biosphere pollution caused by irresponsible pesticide usage causing several issues to honey bee species, the most prominent of which is Apis mellifera L. Although no one chemical has been linked to colony collapse disorder, it is possible that it contributes to decreased honey bee health. Well understanding of pesticide mode of action in targeted pests and honey bees has resulted in a viable technique to prevent pesticide side effects on honey bees. As a result, the purpose of this review is to look into the toxicity of some pesticides used on crops, acaricides used in honey bee colonies and natural plant toxins. Understanding the role of these compounds and their side effects on honey bees is undoubtedly important in preventing colony collapse.
* THESE STATEMENTS HAVE NOT BEEN EVALUATED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION. THIS IS NOT INTENDED TO DIAGNOSE, TREAT CURE OR PREVENT ANY DISEASE.