Christian Scifo,* Venera Cardile,† Alessandra Russo,* Rosanna Consoli,* Carlo Vancheri,‡ Francesco Capasso,§ Angelo Vanella,* and Marcella Renis*1
*Department of Biological Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Biology, and †Department of Physiological Sciences, Viale Andrea Doria, 6, and ‡Department of Internal and Specialistic Medicine, Via Passo Gravina 187- University of Catania, 95125 Catania, Italy §Department of Experimental Pharmacology, Via D. Montesano 49, University of Naples Federico II, 80131 Naples, Italy
Vegetables and fruit help the prevention and the therapy of several kinds of cancer because they contain micronutrients, a class of substances that have been shown to exhibit chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities. In the present study the effects of resveratrol (100 and 200 μM), a phytoalexin found in grapes, and of the ethanolic extract of propolis (50 and 100 μg/ml), a natural honeybee hive product, were tested in androgen-resistant prostate cancer cells (DU145), a cell line resembling the last stage of prostate carcinoma. A comparison between the activity of these micronutrients and vinorelbine bitartrate (Navelbine), a semi- synthetic drug normally used in the therapy of prostate cancer, was conducted. Several biochemical parame- ters were tested, such as cell viability (MTT assay), cell membrane integrity (lactate dehydrogenase release), cell redox status (nitric oxide formation, reactive oxygen species production, reduced glutathione levels), genomic DNA fragmentation (COMET assay) with special attention on the presence of apoptotic DNA damage (TUNEL test), and possible mitochondrial transmembrane potential alteration (∆Ψ). Our results point out the anticancer activity of resveratrol and propolis extract in human prostate cancer, exerting their cytotoxicity through two different types of cell death: necrosis and apoptosis, respectively. The data obtained suggest the possible use of these micronutrients both in alternative to classic chemotherapy, and in combination with very low dosage of vinorelbine (5 μM).
* THESE STATEMENTS HAVE NOT BEEN EVALUATED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION. THIS IS NOT INTENDED TO DIAGNOSE, TREAT CURE OR PREVENT ANY DISEASE.