Comprehensive Metabolite Profiling of Berdav Propolis Using LC-MS/MS: Determination of Antioxidant, Anticholinergic, Antiglaucoma, and Antidiabetic Effects
by Hasan Karagecili, Mustafa Abdullah Yılmaz, Adem Ertürk, Hatice Kiziltas, Leyla Güven, Saleh H. Alwasel and İlhami Gulcin
Propolis is a complex natural compound that honeybees obtain from plants and contributes to hive safety. It is rich in phenolic and flavonoid compounds, which contain antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties. In this study, the chemical composition and antioxidant activities of propolis were investigated; ABTS•+, DPPH• and DMPD•+ were prepared using radical scavenging antioxidant methods. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of propolis were 53 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 170.164 mg of quercetin equivalent (QE)/g, respectively. The ferric ion (Fe3+) reduction, CUPRAC and FRAP reduction capacities were also studied. The antioxidant and reducing capacities of propolis were compared with those of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), α-tocopherol and Trolox reference standards. The half maximal inhibition concentration (IC50) values of propolis for ABTS•+, DPPH• and DMPD•+ scavenging activities were found to be 8.15, 20.55 and 86.64 μg/mL, respectively. Propolis extract demonstrated IC50 values of 3.7, 3.4 and 19.6 μg/mL against α-glycosidase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and carbonic anhydrase II (hCA II) enzyme, respectively. These enzymes’ inhibition was associated with diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and glaucoma. The reducing power, antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibition capacity of propolis extract were comparable to those demonstrated by the standards. Twenty-eight phenolic compounds, including acacetin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, naringenin, chrysin, quinic acid, quercetin, and ferulic acid, were determined by LC-MS/MS to be major organic compounds in propolis. The polyphenolic antioxidant-rich content of the ethanol extract of propolis appears to be a natural product that can be used in the treatment of diabetes, AD, glaucoma, epilepsy, and cancerous diseases.
* THESE STATEMENTS HAVE NOT BEEN EVALUATED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION. THIS IS NOT INTENDED TO DIAGNOSE, TREAT CURE OR PREVENT ANY DISEASE.