Pinar Tatli Seven1, Seval Yilmaz2, Ismail Seven3 and Gulizar Tuna Kelestemur4
1University of Firat, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Diseases, Elazig, 2University of Firat, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, Elazig, 3University of Firat, Vocation School of Sivrice, Department of Beekeping, Elazig, 4University of Firat, Faculty of Fisheries, Department of Aquaculture, Elazig, Turkey
This chapter expresses the effects of propolis on oxidative stress in animals. The term “stress” was first coined by the endocrinologist Hans Selye (1936) more than 70 years ago to define the physiological adaptive responses of the organism to emotional or physical threats (stressors), whether real or perceived (Selye, 1936). Factors causing stress include physiological factors, such as climate, environment, nutrition, and diseases, and physical conditions, such as cage density and transport. Under stress, rapid and temporary changes occur in the body initially; with continuous stress, these are followed by permanent and irreversible changes (Tatli Seven, 2008). Stress responses are characterized as primary, secondary and tertiary. The primary stress response is a neuroendocrine response leading to corticosteroid and catecholamine release. The secondary stress response includes changes in plasma and tissue ion and metabolite levels induced by neuroendocrine hormones. The changes in disease resistance, growth, condition factor, and behaviors at a whole organism level are tertiary responses (Wedemeyer et al., 1990). Finally, a decline in yield and resistance to diseases may occur. Animals under stress become ill more easily, and excess medicine may be necessary to maintain health. As a result, drug residues increase in animal products and threaten public health directly. Stock health and welfare management are key factors in animal health and food safety. For this reason, stress conditions in animals need to be examined carefully (Tatli Seven, 2008). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive molecules containing oxygen. During times of environmental stress (e.g. ultraviolet or heat exposure, environmental pollutant), ROS levels can increase dramatically.This may result in significant damage to cell structures.This cumulates into a situation known as oxidative stress.
* THESE STATEMENTS HAVE NOT BEEN EVALUATED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION. THIS IS NOT INTENDED TO DIAGNOSE, TREAT CURE OR PREVENT ANY DISEASE.