Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245, Indonesia (Received 21 November 2015; Revised 24 April 2016; Accepted 25 April 2016)
Propolis has been used empirically for centuries because of its several biological and pharmacological properties. It was always mentioned as an anti-inflammatory agent. When dental pulp has inflammation, several mediators will be produced by innate immune cells. Cytokines are proteins released from cells in inflammatory process. In recent years, in vitro and in vivo assays provided information concerning about propolis and cytokines, thus a review dealing with the effect of propolis on cytokines during dental pulp inflammation became imperative. This review complied data from our study as well as from other researchers, focusing on its chemical composition on inflammatory process. Its anti-inflammatory property, considering its effect on interleukin, tumour necrosis factor, transforming growth factor as well as other cytokines during dental pulp inflammation are discussed. In vitro and in vivo assays demonstrated that propolis could inhibit inflammation process in dental pulp. Since humans have used propolis for many inflammation diseases and propolis-containing products have been marketed, the knowledge of its properties with scientific basis is not only of academic interest but also of those who use propolis as well. This review opens a new prespective on the investigation of propolis, mainly with respect to the immune system.
* THESE STATEMENTS HAVE NOT BEEN EVALUATED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION. THIS IS NOT INTENDED TO DIAGNOSE, TREAT CURE OR PREVENT ANY DISEASE.