With a concomitant increase in immune-related diseases such as allergic diseases, Type 1 diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease and other immune-related responses such as immunodeficiency, various infectious, diseases, vaccines, and malignancies, it has become very important to have a well-balanced and properly functioning immune system for the maintenance of human health. Recent scientific research has strongly suggested propolis as one of the most promising immunomodulation agents. This review describes recent findings with respect to propolis and its ingredients that show potential in this respect and evaluate their potential mechanisms. The author believes that propolis or/and its ingredients alone and in combination could be promising in manipulating the immune response and inducing immunomodulation. Further exploratory studies are needed to support large clinical trials toward further development of propolis.
* THESE STATEMENTS HAVE NOT BEEN EVALUATED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION. THIS IS NOT INTENDED TO DIAGNOSE, TREAT CURE OR PREVENT ANY DISEASE.